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Instrument: PEM : Particle Environment Monitor
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The purpose of the Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) experiment on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is to provide quantitative measurements of both local and global energy inputs into the Earth's atmosphere by charged particles and Joule dissipation. PEM accomplishes this goal with an integrated set of instruments which measure x-rays, charged particles, and the magnetic field. PEM consists of four instruments: the Atmospheric X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS), the High Energy Particle Spectrometer (HEPS), the Medium Energy Particle Spectrometer (MEPS), and the Vector Magnetometer (VMAG). UARS was launched in 1991.

PEM hardware subsystems were fabricated at three institutions. Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory supplied the AXIS, HEPS, power control unit, and remote power units. The Vector Magnetometer sensor and electronics were furnished by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Southwest Research Institute provided the MEPS, CEP, and zenith and nadir interface electronics. Integration of the PEM system was performed by Southwest Research Institute with support from Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory and Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

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