Askov Long-Term Experiments on Animal Manure and Mineral Fertilizers - Lermarken
The ASKOV Long-term Experiments on Animal manure and Mineral Fertilizers began in 1894. This area was first cultivated around 1800, and was previously open mixed heath and deciduous scrubland. The Average climatic conditions at the experimental site are: minimum annual temperature: 4.4 deg C; Mean annual temperature: 7.7 deg C; Maximum annual temperature: 10.8 deg C; and Mean annual rainfall: 862 mm. The soil properties of the site are:
Minimum depth of root limiting layer: 80cm Maximum depth of root limiting layer: 150 cm Approximate minimum cation exchange capacity: 99.3 mmol/kg Approximate maxiumum cation exchange capacity: 115.7 mmol/kg Approximate minimum soil organic matter content: 2.14% Approximate maximum soil organic matter content: 2.82% Approximate minimum carbon:nitrogen ratio: 11.16 Approximate maximum carbon:nitrogen ratio: 12.25 Approximate minimum soil bulk density: 1.57 g/cm3 Approximate maximum soil bulk density: 1.64 g/cm3 Percent clay (i.e. particles less than 2 um): 10% Percent silt (i.e. particles between 2 um and 20 um): 13% Percent sand (i.e. particles between 20 um and 2000 um): 77% Approximate minimum soil pH: 6 Approximate maximum soil pH: 6.5 (Method of determining soil pH: In CaCl2)
The land use and treatments in the experiment are: 4-course rotation of winter cereals, roots, spring cereals, clover/grass with treatments: Nil, 4 levels FYM, 4 levels NPK, NP, NK, PK, N, P, K. The measurements made during the experiment are listed as parameters in this record. The frequency of measurement varies by type of measurement made.
The width of the smallest plot is 7.33m. the length of the smallest plot is 9.4m. The slope is 1-2%, and the shape is uniform. Cultivation is perpendicular to plotborders. the width of the discard strip around the plot is 1-2m.
DATA AVAILABLE IN ELECTRONIC FORMAT:
Yield data available in electronic format from 1894 Total dry matter offtake data available in electronic format from 1894 Nitrogen content of offtake data available in electronic format from 1949 Content of other nutrients in offtake data available in electronic format from 1953 Total soil carbon data available in electronic format from 1923 Data available in electronic format for total soil nitrogen from 1923 Data available in electronic format for other nutrients from 1912 Data available in electronic format for rainfall from 1970 Data available in electronic format for air temperature from 1970 Data available in electronic format for soil temperature from 1970 Data available in electronic format for wind speed from 1970 Data available in electronic format for net radiation from 1970 Data available in electronic format for sun hours from 1970 Data available in electronic format for relative humidity from 1970
This information was compiled for the GCTE-SOMNET Database, Pete Smith, Pete Falloon, David Powlson, and Jo Smith. Soil Science Department, IACR-Rothamsted, UK.
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Width of smallest plot is 7.33 m Length of smallest plot is 9.4 m Slope: 1-2% . Shape: Uniform Details of direction of cultivation: Perpendicular to plot borders Width of Discard Strip around plot: 1-2 m
There are at least 1 replicates in the experiment. See Christensen et al. (1994). There are Unmanured plots since 1893 for control plots. See Christensen et al. (1994) See Christensen et al. (1994) - based on reexamination of historical data, descriptions and raw data for crop yield.
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Anderson, T.H. & Domsch, K.H. (1989) Ratios of microbial biomass carbon to total organic carbon in arable soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 21: 471-479.
Christensen, B.T. (1988) Effects of animal manure and mineral fertilizer on the total carbon and nitrogen contents of soil size fractions. Biol. Fertil. Soils 5: 304-307.
Christensen, B.T., Petersen, J., Kjellerup, V. & Trentemoller, U. (1994) The Askov Long-Term Experiments on Animal Manure and Mineral Fertilizers: 1894-1994. Danish Institute of Plant and Soil Science SP Report 43, 85pp.
Eiland, F. (1980) The effects of manure and NPK fertilizer on the soil microrganisms in a Danish long-term field experiment. Danish Research Service for pant and Soil Science, Report No. 1522: 447-454.
Kofoed, A.D. & Nemming, O. (1976) Askov 1894: Fertilizers and manure on sandy and loamy soils. Ann Agron. 27: 583-610.
Kofoed, A.D. (1980) Humus in long-term experiments in Denmark. In: Soil Degredation (eds: Boels, D., Davies, D.B. & Johnston, A.E.), A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam: 241-258.
Petersen, J. (1994) Long-term experiments at Askov Experimental Station 1894: Description of the data. Danish Institute of Plant and Soil Science, 13pp.
Schjonning, P., Christensen, B.T. & Cartensen, B. (1994) Physical and chemical properties of a sandy loam receiving animal manure, mineral fertilizer or no fertilizer for 90 years. European Journal of Soil Science 45: 257-268.