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BIOME 6000 (v4.2): Vegetation Maps for the Mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum
Entry ID: BIOME6000


Summary
Abstract: The Palaeovegetation Mapping Project (generally known as BIOME 6000: Prentice
and Webb, 1998) was inaugurated in 1994 with the aim of providing global maps
describing the vegetation patterns at 6000500 yr B.P. (on the radiocarbon time
scale) and the last glacial maximum (defined as 18,0001000 yr B.P. on the
radiocarbon time scale, equivalent to 21,000 yr B.P. on the calendar time
scale) for use by the modelling community.

The BIOME 6000 project has used a standard methodology to map vegetation
patterns using fossil pollen and plant-macrofossil data from individual sites.
The taxa represented in the pollen or plant-macrofossil assemblages are first
allocated to plant functional types (PFTs) on the basis of the life form, leaf
form, phenology and bioclimatic tolerance of the plant species included within
the taxon. Because of the lack of taxonomic resolution in pollen
identification, some taxa can be classified into more than one PFT. Biomes
(i.e. major vegetation types at a regional scale) are defined by combinations
of PFTs, where these combinations usually include both characteristic and
dominant groups. Some PFTs which are known to occur within a given biome are
not included in the biome definition because they occur in too many biomes to
provide discriminatory power. Once the taxon to PFT and PFT to biome
classifications are made, the affinity of pollen or plant-macrofossil
assemblages from individual sites for each biome is calculated. Each assemblage
is allocated to the biome for which it has the highest affinity. In cases where
the assemblage has equal affinity for more than one biome, which can occur when
one biome is defined by a subset of the PFTs that characterise another biome,
the assemblage is allocated to the biome defined by the subset.

The published version of the BIOME 6000 database (Version 3: Prentice et al.,
2000) was based on maps produced on a region by region basis over a number of
years. Here, we have fused the information from the various regions and
standardised the biome names. We recognise 40 biomes, using names that are
broadly consistent with the BIOME4 equilibrium biogeography-biochemistry model
(Kaplan et al., 2003).

Since Version 3 of the BIOME 6000 database was released, there have been three
new palaeovegetation mapping initiatives. Harrison et al. (2001) added a number
of sites from the continental shelf east of China which date to the last
glacial maximum. The Pan-Arctic Initiative (PAIN) extended the site coverage
from the high-northern latitudes at both 6000 yr B.P. and the last glacial
maximum (Bigelow et al., 2003). Pickett et al. (2004) extended the coverage to
the SEAPAC (South East Asia and the Pacific) region at both 6000 yr B.P. and
the last glacial maximum. These data sets are included in the current version
of the BIOME 6000 data set (Version 4.2).

BIOME 6000 Version 4.2 has records for 11166 modern sites, 1794 sites at 6000
yr B.P., and 318 sites at 18,000 yr B.P.

This data set is also available from the Paleoclimate Modelling
Intercomparison project - Phase II:
http://www-lsce.cea.fr/pmip2/synth/vegmaps.shtml

An early version of this data set is available from the WDC/Paleoclimatology
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/biome6000.html

Related URL
Link: View Related Information
Description: Access information and download data

Geographic Coverage
 N: 90.0 S: -90.0  E: 180.0  W: -180.0

Data Set Citation
Dataset Creator: Prentice et al. (2000), Harrison et al. (2001), Bigelow et al. (2003) and Pickett et al. (2004)
Dataset Title: Vegetation Maps For The Mid-Holocene And Last Glacial Maximum
Dataset Series Name: BIOME 6000
Dataset Release Place: Bristol, UK
Dataset Publisher: University of Bristol, School of Geographical Sciences
Version: Version 4.2
Online Resource: http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/resources/Databases/BIOMES_data


Paleo_Temporal_Coverage
Paleo Start Date: 18000 ybp
Paleo Stop Date: 6000 ybp
Chrono Unit:
Chrono Unit:


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > ASIA > EASTERN ASIA > CHINA
CONTINENT > ASIA > EASTERN ASIA > JAPAN
CONTINENT > EUROPE > EASTERN EUROPE > RUSSIAN FEDERATION
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > CANADA
CONTINENT > NORTH AMERICA > UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
CONTINENT > AFRICA
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > ARCTIC
CONTINENT > EUROPE > CENTRAL EUROPE
CONTINENT > EUROPE > EASTERN EUROPE
CONTINENT > EUROPE
CONTINENT > EUROPE > NORTHERN EUROPE
CONTINENT > EUROPE > SOUTHERN EUROPE
CONTINENT > EUROPE > WESTERN EUROPE
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > GLOBAL LAND
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR


Science Keywords
BIOSPHERE >ECOSYSTEMS >TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS >ALPINE/TUNDRA    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOSYSTEMS >TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS >FORESTS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOSYSTEMS >TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS >GRASSLANDS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOSYSTEMS >TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS >SAVANNAS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOSYSTEMS >TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS >SHRUBLAND/SCRUB    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >VEGETATION >LEAF CHARACTERISTICS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >VEGETATION >PLANT CHARACTERISTICS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >VEGETATION >POLLEN    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >VEGETATION >VEGETATION SPECIES    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >LAND RECORDS >MICROFOSSILS    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >LAND RECORDS >PALEOVEGETATION    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >LAND RECORDS >POLLEN    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >LAND RECORDS >RADIOCARBON    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >VEGETATION >PLANT PHENOLOGY    [Definition]
PALEOCLIMATE >PALEOCLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS >VEGETATION RECONSTRUCTION    [Definition]


Project
IPCC >Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change    [Information]
PMIP >Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project    [Information]


Quality
Please note: the data sets contain information about the quality of the dating
control at each time period (DC6 = dating control at 6000 yr B.P., DC18 =
dating control at the last glacial maximum) using the COHMAP dating control
schemes, as described in Yu and Harrison (1995). We stongly recommend that you
only use sites with a dating control <7 in making data-model comparisons
(giving 1116 modern sites, 1636 sites at 6000 yr B.P., 224 sites at 18,000 yr
B.P. ). Sites with no explicit dating control should be included.


Keywords
BIOME 6000
paleovegetation
Last Glacial Maximum
LGM
vegetation patterns
plant functional types
PFT
biogeography


Data Set Progress
IN WORK


Originating Center
University of Bristol


Data Center
Bristol Research Initiative for the Dynamic Global Environment, School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/
Dataset ID: BIOME 6000

Data Center Personnel
Name: KATIE PELLICCI
Phone: +44 (0)117 33 17223
Fax: +44 (0)117 928 7878
Email: katie.pellicci at bristol.ac.uk
Contact Address:
BRIDGE
School of Geographical Sciences
University of Bristol
University Road
City: Bristol
Postal Code: BS8 1SS
Country: United Kingdom



Distribution
Distribution_Media: online
Distribution_Format: pdf, xls, zip
Fees: none


Personnel
SANDY P. HARRISON
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +44 (0)117 33 17223
Fax: +44 (0)117 928 7878
Email: sandy.harrison at bristol.ac.uk
Contact Address:
BRIDGE
School of Geographical Sciences
University of Bristol
University Road
City: Bristol
Postal Code: BS8 1SS
Country: United Kingdom


Publications/References
Bigelow, N. H., Brubaker, L. B., Edwards, M. E., Harrison, S. P., Prentice, I. C., Anderson, P. M., Andreev, A. A., Bartlein, P. J., Christensen, T. R., Cramer, W., Kaplan, J. O., Lozhkin, A. V., Matveyeva, N. V., Murray, D. V., McGuire, A. D., Razzhivin, V. Y., Ritchie, J. C., Smith, B., Walker, D. A., Gajewski, K., Wolf, V., Holmqvist, B. H., Igarashi, Y., Kremenetskii, K., Paus, A., Pisaric, M. F. J., and Vokova, V. S. (2003 - in press). Climate change and Arctic ecosystems I. Vegetation changes north of 55N between the last glacial maximum, mid-Holocene and present. Journal of Geophysical Research. (pdf)
http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/projects/BIOME_6000/102_Bigelow_et_al.pdf

Edwards, M. E., Anderson, P. M., Brubaker, L. B., Ager, T. A., Andreev, A. A., Bigelow, N. H., Cwynar, L. C., Eisner, W. R., Harrison, S. P., Hu, F.-S., Jolly, D., Lozhkin, A. V., MacDonald, G. M., Mock, C. J., Ritchie, J. C., Sher,A. V., Spear, R. W., Williams, J. W., and Yu, G. (2000). Pollen-based biomes for Beringia 18,000, 6000 and 0 14C yr BP. Journal of Biogeography 27(3), 521-554. (pdf)
http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/projects/BIOME_6000/76_Edwards_et_al.pdf

Elenga, H., Peyron, O., Bonnefille, R., Jolly, D., Cheddadi, R., Guiot, J.,
Andrieu, V., Bottema, S., Buchet, G., de Beaulieu, J. L., Hamilton, A. C.,
Maley, J., Marchant, R., Perez-Obiol, R., Reille, M., Riollet, G., Scott, L., Straka, H., Taylor, D., Van Campo, E., Vincens, A., Laarif, F., and Jonson, H.(2000). Pollen-based biome reconstruction for southern Europe and Africa 18,000 yr BP. Journal of Biogeography 27(3), 621-634. (pdf)
http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/projects/BIOME_6000/2nd_elenga.pdf

Harrison, S. P., Yu, G., Takahara, H., and Prentice, I. C. (2001).
Palaeovegetation - Diversity of temperate plants in east Asia. Nature 413,
129-130. (pdf) http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/projects/BIOME_600 /85_Harrison_et_al.pdf

Jolly, D., Prentice, I. C., Bonnefille, R., Ballouche, A., Bengo, M., Brenac, P., Buchet, G., Burney, D., Cazet, J. P., Cheddadi, R., Edorh, T., Elenga, H., Elmoutaki, S., Guiot, J., Laarif, F., Lamb, H., Lezine, A. M., Maley, J., Mbenza, M., Peyron, O., Reille, M., Reynaud-Farrera, I., Riollet, G., Ritchie, J. C., Roche, E., Scott, L., Ssemmanda, I., Straka, H., Umer, M., Van Campo, E., Vilimumbalo, S., Vincens, A., and Waller, M. (1998). Biome reconstruction from pollen and plant macrofossil data for Africa and the Arabian peninsula at 0 and 6000 years. Journal of Biogeography 25(6), 1007-1027. (pdf) http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/projects/BIOME_6000/1nd_Jolly.pdf

Kaplan, J. O., Bigelow, N. H., Prentice, I. C., Harrison, S. P., Bartlein, P. J., Christensen, T. R., Cramer, W., Matveyeva, N. V., McGuire, A. D., Murray, D. F., Razzhivin, V. Y., Smith, B., Walker, D. A., Anderson, P. M., Andreev, A. A., Brubaker, L. B., Edwards, M. E., and Lozhkin, A. V. (2003 - in press). Climate change and arctic ecosystems II: Modeling, paleodata-model comparisons, and future projections. Journal of Geophysical Research. (pdf) http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/projects/BIOME_6000/103_Kaplan_et_al.pdf

Prentice, I. C., and Webb III, T. (1998). BIOME 6000: reconstructing global
mid-Holocene vegetation patterns from palaeoecological records. Journal of
Biogeography 25, 997-1005. (pdf) http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/projects/BIOME_6000/1nd_Prentice.pdf

Prentice, I. C., Guiot, J., Huntley, B., Jolly, D., and Cheddadi, R. (1996). Reconstructing biomes from palaeoecological data: a general method and its application to European pollen data at 0 and 6 ka. Climate Dynamics 12, 185-194.

Prentice, I. C., Jolly, D., and BIOME 6000 Participants. (2000). Mid-Holocene and glacial-maximum vegetation geography of the northern continents and Africa. Journal of Biogeography 27, 507-519. (pdf)
http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/projects/BIOME_6000/75_Prentice_et_al.pdf

Takahara, H., Sugita, S., Harrison, S. P., Miyoshi, N., Morita, Y., and
Uchiyama, T. (2000). Pollen-based reconstructions of Japanese biomes at 0, 6000
and 18,000 14C yr BP. Journal of Biogeography 27(3), 665-683. (pdf)
http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/projects/BIOME_6000/78_Takahara_et_al.pdf

Tarasov, P. E., Webb III, T., Andreev, A. A., Afanas'eva, N. B., Berezina, N. A., Bezusko, L. G., Blyakharchuk, T. A., Bolikhovskaya, N. S., Cheddadi, R., Chernavskaya, M. M., Chernova, G. M., Dorofeyuk, N. I., Dirksen, V. G., Elina, G. A., Filimonova, L. V., Glebov, F. Z., Guiot, J., Gunova, V. S., Harrison, S. P., Jolly, D., Khomutova, V. I., Kvavadze, E. V., Osipova, I. M., Panova, N. K., Prentice, I. C., Saarse, L., Sevastyanov, D. V., Volkova, V. S., and Zernitskaya, V. P. (1998). Present-day and mid-Holocene biomes reconstructed from pollen and plant macrofossil data from the former Soviet Union and Mongolia. Journal of Biogeography 25, 1029-1053. (pdf) http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/projects/BIOME_6000/1nd_Tarasov.pdf

Tarasov, P. E., Volkova, V. S., Webb III, T., Guiot, J., Andreev, A. A.,
Bezusko, L. G., Bezusko, T. V., Bykova, G. V., Dorofeyuk, N. I., Kvavadze, E. V., Osipova, I. M., Panova, N. K., and Sevastyanov, D. V. (2000). Last glacial maximum biomes reconstructed from pollen and plant macrofossil data from northern Eurasia. Journal of Biogeography 27(3), 609-620. (pdf)
http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/projects/BIOME_6000/2nd_Tarasov.pdf

Thompson, R. S., and Anderson, K. H. (2000). Biomes of western North America at 18,000, 6000 and 0 14C yr BP reconstructed from pollen and packrat midden data. Journal of Biogeography 27(3), 555-584.

Williams, J. W., Webb III, T., Richard, P. H., and Newby, P. (2000). Late
Quaternary biomes of Canada and the eastern United States. Journal of
Biogeography 27(3), 585-607.

Yu, G., and Harrison, S. P. (1995). Lake status records from Europe: data base documentation. NOAA Paleoclimatology Publications Series 3: 451pp, Boulder, Colorado.

Yu, G., Prentice, I. C., Harrison, S. P., and Sun, X. J. (1998). Pollen-based biome reconstructions for China at 0 and 6000 years. Journal of Biogeography 25(6), 1055-1069. (pdf)
http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/projects/BIOME_6000/1nd_Yu.pdf

Yu, G., Chen, X., Ni, J., Cheddadi, R., Guiot, J., Han, H., Harrison, S. P.,Huang, C., Ke, M., Kong, Z., Li, S., Li, W., Liew, P., Liu, G., Liu, J., Liu, Q., Liu, K.-B., Prentice, I. C., Qui, W., Ren, G., Song, C., Sugita, S., Sun, X., Tang, L., van Campo, E., Xia, Y., Xu, Q., Yan, S., Yang, X., Zhao, J., and Zheng, Z. (2000). Palaeovegetation of China: a pollen data-based synthesis for the mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum. Journal of Biogeography 27(3), 635-664. (pdf)
http://www.bridge.bris.ac.uk/projects/BIOME_6000/77_Yu_et_al.pdf
Extended Metadata Properties
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Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2006-09-26
Last DIF Revision Date: 2018-09-28



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