The structural and functional diversity of the shallow-water benthic community at Cape Evans

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Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: The structural and functional diversity of the shallow-water benthic community at Cape Evans
Description:
Abstract:
The biodiversity of the seafloor community at Cape Evans was investigated to determine the structural and functional diversity of the benthic community and resurveyed over several seasons to assess year to year variability (01-09). A minimum of three sites, separated by at least 50m and accessed through separate dive holes were surveyed. Two 20m transect lines were laid on the seafloor within the 15-25m depth stratum starting from haphazardly chosen starting points. The transects were videoed using a diver-held digital video camera at a fixed height of (a) 70cm above the bottom (for the broader scale analysis of habitat structure) and (b) 40cm above the bottom (to allow for more accurate species identifications). Along one of the 20m transects, core samples were collected from five randomly chosen positions. At each position, two small sediment cores (20mm diam., 50mm deep) were collected, one to determine sediment grain size and benthic chlorophyll a content and one to determine the natural stable isotope signature of the sediment. Also at each position, one large core (70mm diam., 100mm deep) was collected to estimate the abundance and diversity of the benthic macrofauna. Additional collections include: a) three surface sediment scrapes to determine the species composition of microalgae, b) three individuals of each of the numerically dominant epibenthic species, for growth measurements and to determine the stable istope signatures and c) additional specimens of animals and plants and organic material (eg seal gaeces) for isotopic analysis to provide a more complete picture of the trophic structure of the community. Algae on the undersurface of the sea-ice were sampled to determine their isotopic signature using five small cores (20mm diam., 100mm deep). Another 9 cores were obtained for the determination of chlorophyll a and species composition of sea-ice algae. Video sampling was stratified by habitat and additional footage was taken of biota in the study area for a general picture of the site. Physical background variables (sea-ice conditions, light colour and intensity) were measured at 15m depth and water currents estimated. In the 03-04 season sediment traps, fluorometers and light meters were installed between depths of 15-25m. The sediment trap arrays were deployed at depths of 15, 20 and 25m. Each array consisted of three replicate tubes which were recovered the following season and analysed for algal species composition, relative abundance, total biomass and pigments to ascertain the relative contribution of phytoplankton and ice-algae as potential food sources for benthic invertebrates. Additional samples of ice algae were collected to compare and add to the list of ice algae taxa. The fluorometer were installed to measure temperature and water column chlorophyll fluorescence. It was deployed at 20m depth and programmed to measured phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence every two hours. Light sensors and data loggers were installed to record changes in photosynthetically available radiation (PAR). In the 04-05 season, sea urchins Sterechinus neumayeri were collected over a range of depths and analysed gut contents and size-frequency. In all seasons, the site was resurveyed using the above diver-held video camera. The site was resurveyed in the 2005-06 and the 2008-09 field seasons.
Purpose:
Not Available
Supplemental_Information:
REFERENCE: Thrush, S.F., Hewitt, J.E., Cummings, V.J., Norkko, A. And Chiantore, M. 2010. ß-Diversity and species accumulation in Antarctic coastal benthos: Influence of habitat, distance and productivity on ecological connectivity. PLOS One 5(7): e11899 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011899 Norkko, A. Thrush, S.F. Cummings, V.J. Funnell, G.A. Schwarz, A.-M. Andrew, N.L. Hawes, I. Ecological role of Phyllophra antarctica drift accumulations in coastal soft-sediment communities of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Polar biology 27: 482-494, 2004. Cummings, V.J. 2003. Assessing biodiversity on the Antarctic sea floor. Water and atmosphere 11(3): 10-12, 2003. Norkko, J. Indicators of short-term growth in bivalves: detecting environmental change across ecological scales. Ph.D., University of Auckland : . 2005. Norkko, A. Thrush, S.F. Cummings, V.J. Gibbs, M.M. Andrew, N.L. Norkko, J. Schwarz, A-M. Trophic structure of coastal Antarctic food webs associated with changes in sea ice and food supply. Ecology 88: 2810-2820, 2007. Schwarz, A.-M. 2003. Life in the dark: plant growth beneath the sea ice. Water and atmosphere 11(3): 14-15, 2003. Schwarz, A.-M. Hawes, I. Andrew, N. Mercer, S. Cummings, V. Thrush, S. Primary production potential of non-geniculate coralline algae at Cape Evans, Ross Sea, Antarctica. Marine ecology progress series 294: 131-140, 2005. Thrush, S. Dayton, P. Cattaneo-Vietti, R. Chiantore, M. Cummings, V. Andrew, N. Hawes, I. Kim, S. Kvitek, R. Schwarz, A.-M. Broad-scale factors influencing the biodiversity of coastal benthic communities of the Ross Sea. Deep-sea research II 53: 959-971, 2006. Norkko, J. Norkko, A. Thrush, S.F. Cummings, V.J. Detecting growth under environmental extremes: Spatial and temporal patterns in nucleic acid ratios in two Antarctic bivalves. Journal of experimental marine biology and ecology 326: 144-156, 2005. Schwarz, A-M. Hawes, I. Andrew, N. Norkko, A. Cummings, V. Thrush, S. 2003 Macroalgal photosynthesis near southern global limit for growth; Cape Evans, Ross Sea, Antarctica. Polar biology 26: 789-799 Cummings, V.J., Thrush, S.F., Norkko, A., Andrew, N.L., Hewitt, J.E., Funnell, G.A., Schwarz, A-M. 2006. Accounting for local scale variability in benthos: implications for future assessments of latitudinal trends in the coastal Ross Sea. Antarctic Science 18(4): 633-644.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20011106
Ending_Date: 20081119
Currentness_Reference:Unknown
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent:
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: 166.4145
East_Bounding_Coordinate: 166.4145
North_Bounding_Coordinate: -77.6347
South_Bounding_Coordinate: -77.6347
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD SCIENCE PARAMETERS
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD PLATFORM
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD INSTRUMENT
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: PROJECT
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: ISO TOPIC CATEGORY
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: DATA SET LANGUAGE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN OPTICS > FLUORESCENCE
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN OPTICS > PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > ANIMALS/INVERTEBRATES
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION > PLANTS
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > PIGMENTS > CHLOROPHYLL
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS > BENTHIC HABITAT
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS > COASTAL HABITAT
Theme_Keyword: EARTH SCIENCE > BIOSPHERE > ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS > COMMUNITY DYNAMICS > COMMUNITY STRUCTURE
Theme_Keyword: FIELD SURVEYS
Theme_Keyword: FIELD INVESTIGATION
Theme_Keyword: SEDIMENT TRAPS
Theme_Keyword: PAR SENSORS > PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE RADIATION SENSORS
Theme_Keyword: LGP > LATITUDINAL GRADIENT PROJECT
Theme_Keyword: IPY > INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR
Theme_Keyword: EBA > EVOLUTION AND BIODIVERSITY IN THE ANTARCTIC
Theme_Keyword: BIOTA
Theme_Keyword: OCEANS
Theme_Keyword: ENGLISH
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: GCMD
Place_Keyword: CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > CAPE EVANS
Place_Keyword: GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR
Access_Constraints: Not Available
Use_Constraints:
Not Available
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: VONDA CUMMINGS
Contact_Position: INVESTIGATOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: NIWA
Address: PO Box 11-115
City: Hamilton
Country: New Zealand
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +64 7 856 7026
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +64 7 856 0151
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: v.cummings@niwa.co.nz
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Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
Not Available
Logical_Consistency_Report:
Not Available
Completeness_Report:
Not Available
Lineage:
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Not Available
Process_Date: Unknown
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Spatial_Reference_Information:
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Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization: NZ/NZAI/ANZ > Antarctica New Zealand, New Zealand Antarctic Institute, New Zealand
Contact_Person: SHULAMIT GORDON
Contact_Position: DATA CENTER CONTACT
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Antarctica New Zealand
Address: Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +64 3 358 0200
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +64 3 358 0211
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: s.gordon@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Resource_Description: K082_2001_2002_NZ_1
Distribution_Liability:
Not Available
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: Not Available
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.antarcticanz.govt.nz/
Access_Instructions:
DATA CENTER URL
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
http://www.lgp.aq/http://www.niwa.co.nz/our-scienc...
Access_Instructions:
LGP-Latitudinal Gradient Project
Fees: Not Available
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Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20051011
Metadata_Review_Date: 20101208
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: SHULAMIT GORDON
Contact_Position: DIF AUTHOR
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing and Physical Address
Address: Antarctica New Zealand
Address: Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand
Contact_Voice_Telephone: +64 3 358 0200
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: +64 3 358 0211
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: s.gordon@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
Metadata_Time_Convention: local time
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