UV climate over the Southern Ocean south of Australia, and its biological impact - 1994 data
Ozone depletion over Antarctica increases UVB irradiances reaching the Earth's surface in the region. Marine microbes, that support the Antarctic food web and play an integral part in carbon cycling, are damaged by UVB. This research determines Antarctic UV climate, biological responses to UV from the molecular to community level, and combines these elements to predict UV-induced changes in ... Antarctic marine microbiology.
A season of field work was undertaken over November and December 1994 based from Davis Station with the intention of making field measurements of ultraviolet radiation in the fast ice environment, as well as some of the lakes in the Vestfold Hills.
The instrument for the measurements was a Macam spectral radiometer, owned by Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania. Field personnel were Dr Kelvin Michael (IASOS) and Mr Michael Wall (Honours student, Geography and Environmental Studies, UTas).
The radiometer was equipped with a 25-metre quartz light pipe, with a cosine sensor attachment at the end. To make a measurement of ultraviolet irradiance, the sensor would be oriented so that its sensing surface was horizontal, and it would collect light which was then transmitted along the light pipe to the radiometer - a suitcase-sized unit which ran on battery power in the field. The radiometer was encased in a wooden box lined with polystyrene foam to provide protection from the elements and heat insulation. The radiometer was controlled via a laptop PC and the data were stored on the hard disk of the PC.
Measurements of the attenuation of ultraviolet and visible radiation as a function of wavelength in water were made at the ice edge and lake measurement sites. At the ice edge, the light pipe was spooled over a wheel and lowered to preset depths (typically 1,2,4,8,16 and 32 m below the water surface). On a lake, a 25-cm augur hole was drilled, and the light pipe was lowered by hand to various depths, the exact depths chosen depended on the depth of the lake.
Where the lake ice conditions permitted, a frame was lowered through the hole and used to lever the light pipe against the underside of the ice and a measurement of the ultraviolet and visible transmission of the sea ice was collected.
In all cases, measurements of the ultraviolet and visible surface irradiance were collected before and/or after the sub-surface measurements.
When the sky conditions were sufficiently clear, the direct and diffuse components of the ultraviolet and visible irradiance values were estimated, via the use of a shading apparatus. This would ensure that the radiometer would measure the diffuse component of the radiation field, allowing the direct component to be estimated by subtraction of the diffuse from the global (unshaded) measurement.
On some occasions, the upwelling irradiance from the snow or ice surface was also measured, providing information on the spectral albedo of the surface.
At each measurement, spectral irradiance values were generally collected for two spectral ranges: UV-B (280 - 400 nm, in 1-nm steps) and visible (400 - 700 nm, in 5-nm steps). In some cases, the wavelength boundaries were different - eg 280 - 350 nm for the UV-B, or 550 - 680 nm in the visible (corresponding to channel 1 of the NOAA AVHRR sensor). The data were stored by the PC as raw data files. The names of these files are automatically defined from the time on the logging PC as 'hhmmss.dti'. Note that the PC was operating on Australian Eastern Summer Time, 4 hours ahead of DLT. These data files were later read into Excel spreadsheets for manipulation.
See the linked report for further information.
The measurements are all in units of watts per metre squared per nanometre (Wm^-2 nm_-1)
The heading UV-B refers to the fact that the data are collected in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum (280 - 400 nm)
The heading AVHRR refers to the fact that the data are collected in the visible part of the spectrum (400 - 700 nm)
The fields in this dataset are:
Download point for the data - excel spreadsheets and word documents
(Click for Interactive Map)
The data is in publications and held at the Universite Libre de Bruxelles / Unite d'Oceanographie Chimique Belgium and National Institute for Water and Atmosphere, New Zealand, and Univerity of Otago. Please contact the investigators for more information.
Data Set Progress
+64 4 931 3000
+64 4 931 3754
t.haskell at irl.cri.nz
Industrial Research Ltd.
PO BOX 31310
+64 3 479 7787
+64 3 479 0964
pjl at physics.otago.ac.nz
Department of Physics
University of Otago
PO BOX 56
Université Libre de Bruxelles
Leonard, G. H., P. J. Langhorne, M. J. M. Williams, R. Vennell, C. R. Purdie, D.E. Dempsey, T. G. Haskell and R.D. Frew. Evolution of supercooling under coastal Antarctic sea ice during winter. Antarctic Science doi:10.1017/S0954102011000265 (2011)
Smith, I.J., Langhorne, P.J., Frew, R.D. and Haskell, T. G. Sea ice thicknesses near ice shelves: determining growth rates. Submitted to Cold Regions Science and Technology.
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