An atlas of the lakes of the Larsemann Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica - ANARE Research Notes 74
From the abstract of the ANARE Research Note:
The Larsemann Hills are a series of granite and gneiss peninsulas extending into Prydz Bay, between the Amery Ice Shelf and the Sørsdal Glacier. They are dissected by steep-sided valleys produced by at least two glacial stages in the Holocene. There are over 150 freshwater lakes in the hills, ranging from small ponds less ... than 1 m deep, to glacial lakes up to 10 ha and 38 m deep. The lakes are young, with the oldest basins being about 9000 years old. Variations in the characteristics of the lakes reflect deglaciation history, proximity to the continental ice margin and exposure to the ocean. The main source of the water is snow melt, augmented by sea spray into the more exposed lakes. The waters are well mixed by katabatic winds. Most lakes thaw for up to 2 months in summer, but some are permanently frozen.
The waters have mainly low conductivity and exceptionally low turbidity, and have near-neutral pH values. The ionic order is Na+ greater than Mg2+ greater than Ca2+ greater than K+. This reflects a strong marine influence, with calcium dominating in a very few catchments.
The Larsemann Hills were discovered in 1935 by Captain Klarius Mikkelsen in the Thorshavn. Australian, Chinese and Russian stations were established in the area in the mid-late 1980's. Law (Australia) was commenced in 1986 when an Apple Hut was unloaded from MV Nella Dan. A subsequent visit was made during the 1986 winter. The first Australian scientific expedition visited the area during the 1986-87 austral summer. Progress Station (Russia) was occupied at the time. Building of Zhong Shan commenced in January 1989.
Several files are associated with this metadata record:
1) pdf copy of the original ANARE Research Note
2) Excel spreadsheet containing the data presented in the ANARE Research Note (in csv format)
3) A shapefile of the lakes presented in the ANARE Research Note
The fields in this dataset are:
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The initial observations of the Larsemann Hills lakes were undertaken at two levels early in 1987. Firstly a sample of 74 lakes was selected to include a wide range of sizes and depths, degree of ice cover and distance from the ice edge. A rapid survey technique was developed using a helicopter. Each lake was photographed, located and it's altitude recorded using an aneroid barometer. Depth ... Profiles were recorded using an echo sounder with a transducer mounted on a float deployed from the helicopter; depth readings were taken every 20 m on two orthogonal transects across each lake. Surface water temperature was measured using a thermistor mounted on the float and a surface water sample obtained in a polyethylene bottle. A grab sample of the bottom sediment was obtained at the same time. In a field laboratory water samples were analysed for pH, Eh and conductivity. Turbidity, total dissolved salts and major cations were analysed in the laboratory after the expedition. Characterisation of the benthic sediments depended on sample size: in some cases there was insufficient mineral sediment for textural analysis. Subsamples of the organic fraction of bottom sediment were given to Dr R. Pidgeon, Department of Zoology, University of New England, for extraction of microfauna.
Secondly nine lakes were selected for detailed study. The lakes and their catchments were surveyed, and detailed bathymetric profiles measured. Depth specific measurements of temperature, Ph, conductivity and dissolved oxygen content were made on several occasions. Water samples for analysis were taken at depths of 0.3 m, 1.0 m, 3.0 m, 5.0 m, 10.0 m, 15.0 m etc. These samples were analysed in the same way as the helicopter survey samples.
It should be noted that some caution should be taken with data pertaining to lake position and distance from polar plateau. Lake positions are only given to the minute accuracy, and no standardised position is indicated for measurements between polar plateau and each lake.
The dates provided in temporal coverage are very approximate and represent a best guess from the DIF Author based on information gleaned from the research note.
A pdf copy of the research note, an excel spreadsheet (in csv format) of the data contained in the ANARE Research Note, and a shapefile representing the lakes are available for download from the URLs given below. The shapefile has been formatted according to the SCAR Feature Catalogue, which includes data quality information.
Data Set Progress
+61 3 6226 7488
+61 3 6226 2973
John.gibson at utas.edu.au
Private Bag 77
University of Tasmania
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+61 3 6232 3244
+61 3 6232 3351
dave.connell at aad.gov.au
Australian Antarctic Division
203 Channel Highway
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+61 2 6268 8308
+61 2 6268 8313
J.Burgess at adfa.edu.au
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Australian Capital Territory
Gillieson, D., Burgess, J., Spate, A., Cochrane, A. (1991) An atlas of the lakes of the Larsemann Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica. ANARE Research Notes 74. 173 pp
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