This work was carried out by Graeme Smith between 1966 and 1970 as part of a PhD at the Australian National University. The dataset contains information about penguins killed in 1967 as part of the work. Also available for download is a copy of the thesis.
Taken from the introduction of the thesis:
Penguins are widely distributed in the Southern Hemisphere. The distribution is circumpolar in ... the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions, and ranges north to the southern coasts of Africa, Australasia and South America, where the range extends northwards up the western coast, and across to the Galapagos Islands. The Galapagos penguin is the most northern species, while the Emperor and the Adelie penguins are confined to the Antarctic.
Although most species of penguins are found in the warmer zones of the Southern Hemisphere, and in many cases close to inhabited coasts, comparatively little is known about their biology. By contrast, the biology of the penguins of the remote sub-Antarctic islands and the Antarctic continent is well documented for a number of species.
This anomalous situation is probably a result of the great interest shown in the Antarctic regions following Cook's voyages (1768-71 and 1772-75), and the comparatively limited number of species found in these regions.
Also see the metadata record for work on Royal Penguins carried out at Macquarie Island between 1955 and 1969 - ID "RoyalPenguin1955-1969".