The Doppler Orbitography by Radiopositioning Integrated on Satellite (DORIS) was developed by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) with cooperation from other French government agencies. The system was developed to provide precise orbit determination and high accuracy location of ground beacons for point positioning. DORIS is a dual-frequency Doppler system that has been included as an ... experiment
on various space missions such as TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT-2, -3, -4, and -5, Envisat, and Jason satellites. Unlike many other navigation systems, DORIS is based on an uplink device. The receivers are on board the satellite with the transmitters are on the ground. This creates a centralized system in which the complete set of observations is downloaded by the satellite to the ground center, from where they are distributed after editing and processing. An accurate measurment is made of the Doppler shift on radiofrequency signals emitted by the ground beacons and received on the spacecraft.