The dataset contains manual recordings transcribed into electronic format, following the ASPeCt (Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate) protocol, for inclusion in the cruise data set. Although the observations are necessarily subjective to each person's individual biases, when taken as a whole, the data set revealed some statistically valid trends in winter sea ice conditions of Western ... Antarctica in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Sea.
Throughout cruise NBP07-09 a team of 9 volunteers made 192 observations of local sea ice conditions over a period of 63 days broken up into two voyages. The protocol used was devised by the ASPeCt working group of the Scientific Committee of Antarctic Research (SCAR). This data set was supplemented by estimates of the number of icebergs.
This process entailed making qualitative observations every hour (GMT) of sea ice conditions, weather, and iceberg conditions from the bridge of the RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer and recording them onto the ASPeCt standard log sheets. The observations included recording the latitude, longitude, overall sea ice concentration, and conditions for the primary, secondary, and tertiary ice types observed. The ice type descriptions incorporated the concentration of each ice type with regards to the overall concentration, ice type, ice thickness, floe size, topography, snow cover, and snow depth. The air/water temperature, wind speed, and direction were recorded from the vessel’s underway data acquisition system (DAS). NOAA's meteorological observation weather codes were used to identify the weather conditions for precipitation and visibility. Observations incorporated ice conditions within 1km from the ship per the ASPeCt protocol, and used radar images to estimate approximate icebergs within 6 nautical miles. In order to help determine the scale of ice thickness, an inflatable ball 0.5 meters in diameter was installed on the starboard side of the ship to gauge ice thickness more accurately as an ice piece was being turned on edge by the ship. Additionally, two time lapse cameras were installed with a 5 second shutter speed to help capture the ice conditions from the starboard side and the ice tower. Ultimately night observations were made by the light emitted from the ship at a range of a few tens of meters.
ASPeCt is an expert working group of the SCAR whose aim is to help improve and standardize understanding of the Antarctic sea ice zone through ongoing field programs, remote sensing and numerical modeling. Towards the end of the cruise as the spring season was approaching, the ice edge seemed to retreat per images transmitted from radar images such as Radarsat and Envisat. With these resources, and the ASPeCt observations, we can determine preliminary ice conditions for this region to set a precedent for future studies. The observational data set has been contributed to an archive consisting of over 100 similar cruise data sets that in aggregate provide a circumpolar view of Antarctic sea ice properties.
Arinushkina E.V. 1970. Manual for Chemical Analysis of Soils. 2nd Ed. Publ. Moscow State University, Moscow, 487 pp. [In Russian] Blagodatski, S.A., A.A. Larionova and I.V. Evdokimova, 1993. Contribution of root respiration to CO2 emission from soil. In: Soil Respiration. In: Proceedings of the Institute of Physico-Chemical and Biological Problems of Soil Science of Academy of Science of Russia, ... Puschino, 26√ê32 (in Russian). Dokuchaev, V.V. 1951. Selected Works, Vols. I and II, Moscow-Leningrad. FAO-UNESCO. 1998. Soil Map of the World, Revised Legend. World Resources Report No. 60. FAO, Rome, ISBN 92-5-102622-X. FAO. 1998. World Reference Base of Soil Resources. World Soil Resources Reports 84, Rome, 88 pp. Fridland V.M. (Ed.) 1988. Soil Map of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic at Scale 1:2.5 Million. All Union Academy of Agricultural Science, Moscow. Government Administration for Geodesy and Cartography (GUGK), 16 sheets. Fridland V.M. 1982. Main Principles and Elements of Basic Soil Classification and Program for Development. All Union Academy of Agricultural Science, Moscow, 149 pp. [In Russian] Fridland, V.M. 1972. The structure of Soil Cover. Mysl, Moscow. Grishina, L.A., 1986. Humus formation and humus status of soils. Publ. Moscow State University, 244 (in Russian). Guidelines for Soil Profile Description. 1990. 3rd Ed. (Revised). FAO, Rome, 70 pp. Kogut, B. and A. Frid. 1993. Comparative Evaluation of Methods of Determining Humus Concentration in Soils. Pochvovedenie 9:119√ê123. [In Russian] Kudeyarov, V.N., F.I. Hakimov, N.F. Deyeva, A.A. Il√ïina, T.V. Kuznetzova, and A.V. Timchenko, 1996. Evaluation of respiration of Russian soils. Eurasian Soil Science, 28 (3). Madsen, H.B. and R.J.A. Jones. 1993. Guidelines for Completing Soil Attribute Tables I and II: Users Guide, Soil Database of Europe. Unpublished manuscript, SESCPe, INRA, France. Makarov, B.N., 1993. Soil respiration and its role in carbon nutrition of the plants. Agrokhimia, 8, 94√ê104 (in Russian). Rode, A.A. 1975. Explanatory Dictionary of Soil Science. Nauka, Moscow. Rode, A.A. 1978. The Problems of the Soil Water Regime. Gydrometizdat, Leningrad, 212 pp. [In Russian] Shishov L.L., and I.A. Sokolov. 1992. A New Version of Soil Classification in the Soviet Union. Pochvovedenie 4:112-120. [In Russian] Shishov, L.L., V.D. Tonkonogov, and I.I. Lebedeva. 1998. Russian Soil Classification. Academy of Agricultural Science, Mowcow, 236 pp. [In Russian] Soil Taxonomy. 1999. Second Edition by Soil Survey Staff, Agriculture Handbook, Number 436. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington DC, 869 pp. Soil and Physiographic Database for North and Central Eurasia at 1:5 Million Scale. 1999. Land and Water Digital Media Series, 7, CD-ROM. FAO, Rome. Stolboboi V. 2000. Soils of Russia: Correlated with the Revised Legend of the FAO Soil Map of the World and World Reference Base for Soil Resources. Research Report, RR-00-13. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria,112 pp. Stolbovoi V., 2001. Soil Respiration in the Full Carbon Account for Russia. Sixth International Carbon Dioxide Conference, 2001 Sendai Japan, Extended Abstracts, pp. 434-437. Stolbovoi V., L. Montanarella, V.Medvedev, N. Smeyan, L.Shishov, V.Ungureanu, G.Dobrovolski, M.Jamagne, D.King, V.Rozhkov, I.Savin, 2001. Integration of Data on the Soils of Russia, Byelorus, Moldova and Ukraine into the Soil Geographic Database of the European Community. Eurasian Soil Science, Vol. 34, No. 7, pp.687-703. Stolbovoi V., and B.V. Sheremet. 1995. A New Soil Map of Russia, Compiled in FAO System. Pochvovedenie 2:149√ê158. [In Russian] Stolbovoi V.S., and B.V. Sheremet. 1996. Soil Map of Russia, Scale 1:8 Million, in the U.S. Soil Taxonomy System. Eurasian Soil Science 28(12):73√ê82. Stolbovoi V.S., and I.Y. Savin. 1996. Experience of RUSOTER Digital Database Compilation. Pochvovedenie 11:1295√ê1302. [In Russian] Stolbovoi V. and I. McCallum, eds. 2002. Land resources of Russia. Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and the Russian Academy of Science. CD-ROM. USDA. 1999. Soil Taxonomy, 2nd Ed. by Soil Survey Staff, Agriculture Handbook, Number 436, United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington DC, 869 pp. Van Engelen, V.W.P., and T.T. Wen. 1993. Global and National Soil and Terrain Digital Databases (SOTER). Procedures Manual (Revised Version). ISRIC, Wageningen, Netherlands, 115 pp. World Soil Resources. An explanatory note on the FAO World Soil Resources Map at 1:25,000,000 scale. 1993. World Soil Resources Reports, 66 Rev. 1, FAO, Rome, 66 pp.