Investigation into the environmental factors that drive microbial diversity in the soils of the Miers Valley, Mt Erebus, Bratina Island and Beacon Valley
Entry ID: K023_2005_2007_NZ_1

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Summary
Abstract: Modern molecular phylogenetics, in conjunction with sensitive mineral surface geochemical analysis, was used to determine the quantitative and qualitative distribution of micro-organism in Dry Valley soils, the key environmental factors that determine microbial distribution and what the role of micro-organism in community structure are. Several sites were sampled including Mt Erebus, the Miers Valley, Bratina Island and Beacon Valley. At Mt Erebus, the site was probed for soil temperatures and the areas hot spots were mapped. The temperature, pH and soil moisture was measured over three transects and the soil was sampled at intervals along each transect. A temperature logger with two probes, one at 4cm depth and the other on the surface was installed for one year. At the Miers Valley, a survey of hypoliths was conducted to gain a quantitative estimation of habitat and biomass values. Hypolith dimensions (cm2), weight of the hypolith rock (g), gross weight of the community (g), the depth of rock insertion (mm) and the depth of penetration (mm) were all recorded. Environmental data (temperature, humidity and irradiance levels) of hypoliths was also recorded with probes at the underside of the hypolith (3cm deep), the soil surface, open mineral soil (3cm) and non-translucent rock (3cm). Photographs were taken of the hypoliths and samples were collected for phylogenetic analysis, pigment spectrophotometric analysis and ATP analysis. A transect was established and soil samples were collected at intervals along the transect. An area with several (>48) seal carcases was surveyed with transects running through individual carcasses. Transects were described, sampled at intervals, pH measured, CO2 profiles determined, the relative humidity and temperature under the carcass measured, sampled for RNA analysis and microscopy and DNA samples were extracted. Other seal carcasses were sampled for carbon dating. Two experiments were set up: 1) Hypolith growth experiment to determine if soils are capable of seeding de novo hypoliths and 2) DNA longevity was determined in soil next to a hypolith sample using a clonesaver card cut into 9 bits. Soil types were also plated onto media for isolation of certain bacteria. At Bratina Island, two ponds (P70 and Orange) were sampled, and temperature and pH recorded. A short visit was made to the Beacon Valley where soils were sampled across a 25m transect for comparison. Samples (comprising DNA extracts, soil samples, mummified seal tissue samples, RNA later-stabilised soil samples, rock samples, hypolith samples and culture plates) collected from the Miers and Beacon Valleys were returned to the University of Waikato.

Related URL
Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Link: VIEW RELATED INFORMATION
Description: The investigators homepage


Parent DIF
This data set description is a member of a collection. The collection is described in
K023_2004_2008_NZ_1


Geographic Coverage
 N: -78.0943 S: -78.0943  E: 163.812  W: 163.812
 N: -77.7667 S: -77.7667  E: 167.45  W: 167.45
 N: -78.0167 S: -78.0167  E: 165.5333  W: 165.5333
 N: -77.5155 S: -77.5155  E: 160.7155  W: 160.7155

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 2005-01-24
Stop Date: 2005-02-05

Start Date: 2006-01-10
Stop Date: 2006-02-01

Start Date: 2006-11-26
Stop Date: 2006-12-13


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > BEACON VALLEY
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > BRATINA ISLAND
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > MIERS VALLEY
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > MT EREBUS
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR


Science Keywords
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >MICRONUTRIENTS/TRACE ELEMENTS    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >SOIL MOISTURE/WATER CONTENT    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >SOIL PRODUCTIVITY    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >SOIL TEMPERATURE    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >MICROFLORA    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >COMMUNITY DYNAMICS >BIODIVERSITY FUNCTIONS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >COMMUNITY DYNAMICS >COMMUNITY STRUCTURE    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
BIOTA
ENVIRONMENT
GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION


Platform
FIELD SURVEYS    [Information]
LABORATORY    [Information]


Instrument
SOIL MOISTURE PROBE    [Information]
SOIL SAMPLER    [Information]
SOIL TEMPERATURE PROBE    [Information]


Project
LTER >Long-Term Ecological Research    [Information]
LGP >Latitudinal Gradient Project    [Information]
IPY >INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR    [Information]
EBA >Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic    [Information]


Quality
In the 2005-2006 season, samples of soil, sediment and water were collected from Tramway Ridge, Bratina Island meltwater ponds and in the Miers Valley. A set of soil and hypolith samples are held in South Africa.

In the 2006-2007 season, samples were collected from Tramway Ridge, Mt Erebus, the Miers Valley and Beacon Valley. Samples consisted of soil, hyperrhic measurements, seal samples, cyanbacterial mats and hyperliths. A small number of samples are held in South Africa.

All of the collected samples are stored at the University of Waikato, Hamilton New Zealand in a PC2 containment facility. Various amounts of the samples are held at the University of Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa and is indicated below. The samples are stored at -80C. The samples were used for DNA analysis and this analysis uses very little material. Therefore, most if not all, of the samples still exist.

Please contact the investigator for more information.


Data Set Progress
IN WORK


Data Center
Antarctica New Zealand, New Zealand Antarctic Institute, New Zealand    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.antarcticanz.govt.nz/

Data Center Personnel
Name: SHULAMIT GORDON
Phone: +64 3 358 0200
Fax: +64 3 358 0211
Email: s.gordon at antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact Address:
Antarctica New Zealand
Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand


Personnel
CRAIG CARY
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +64 7 838 4593
Fax: +64 7 838 4218
Email: caryc at UDel.Edu
Email: c.cary at waikato.ac.nz
Contact Address:
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Waikato
PO BOX 3105
City: Hamilton
Postal Code: 3105
Country: New Zealand


DON COWAN
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +27 (21) 959 2083
Fax: +27 (21) 959 3505
Email: dcowan at uwc.ac.za
Contact Address:
Department of Biotechnology
University of the Western Cape
Bellville
City: Cape Town
Postal Code: 7535
Country: SOUTH AFRICA


CEISHA POIROT
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +64 3 358 0200
Fax: +64 3 358 0211
Email: c.poirot at antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact Address:
Antarctica New Zealand
Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand


SHULAMIT GORDON
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +64 3 358 0200
Fax: +64 3 358 0211
Email: s.gordon at antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact Address:
Antarctica New Zealand
Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand


Publications/References
Cowan, D.A. Ah Tow, L. Smith, J.J. Cary, C. Moodley, K. 2005 Microbial molecular ecology of continental Antarctic biotopes. Antarctica: Global Laboratory for Scientific and International Collaboration. Tan, A., Yasin, Z., Mansor, M.(eds), Kuala Lumpur Academy of Sciences Malaysia

Adams, B.J. Bardgett, R.D. Ayres, E. Wall, D.H. Aislabie, J. Bamforth, S. Bargagli, R. Cary, C. Cavacini, P. Connell, L. Convey, P. Fell, J.W. Frati, F. Hogg, I. Newsham, K.K. O’Donnell, A. Russell, N. Seppelt, R.D. Stevens, M.I. 2006 Diversity and distribution of Victoria Land biota. Soil biology and biochemistry 38(10): 3003-3018 doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.04.030

Barrett, J.E. Virginia, R.A. Wall, D.H. Cary, S.C. Adams, B.J. Hacker, A.L. Aislabie, J.M. 2006 Co-variation in soil biodiversity and biogeochemistry in northern and southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Antarctic science 18(4): 535-548 doi: 10.1017/S0954102006000587

Hogg, I.D. Cary, S.C. Convey, P. Newsham, K.K. O’Donnell, A.G. Adams, B.J. Aislabie, J. Frati, F. Stevens, M.I. Wall, D.H. 2006 Biotic interactions in Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems: Are they a factor? Soil biology and biochemistry 38(10): 3035-3040 doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.04.026

Smith, J.J. Ah Tow, L. Baker, G. Cary, C. Cowan, D.A. 2006 Bacterial diversity in three different Antarctic cold desert mineral soils. Microbial ecology 51(4): 413-421

Cowan, D.A. Casanueva, A. Stafford, W. 2007 Ecology and biodiversity of cold-adapted organisms. In: Physiology and biochemistry of extremophiles. Gerday, C., Glansdorff, N.(eds), Washington, DC. ASM Press

Niederberger, T.D. McDonald, I.R. Hacker, A.L. Soo, R.M. Barrett, J.E. Wall, D.H. Cary, C. 2008 Microbial community composition in soils of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica Environmental microbiology 10(7): 1713-1624 doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01593.x

Wood, S.A. Rueckert, A. Cowan, D.A. Cary, S.C. 2008 Sources of edaphic cyanobacterial diversity in the Dry Valleys of Eastern Antarctica. The ISME journal 2: 308-320 doi:10.1038/ismej.2007.104

"Babalola, O.O., Kirby, B.M., Le Roes-Hill, M., Cook, A.E., Cary, S.C., Burton, S.G. And Cowan, D.A. 2009. Phylogenetic analysis of actinobacterial populations
associated with Antarctic Dry Valley mineral soils. Environmental Microbiology 11(3): 566-576."

Soo, R.M., Wood, S.A., Grzymski, J.J., McDonald, I.R. And Cary, S.C. 2009. Microbial biodiversity of thermophilic communities in hot mineral soils of Tramway Ridge, Mount Erebus, Antarctica. Environmental Microbiology 11 (3): 715-729.

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2009-04-30
Last DIF Revision Date: 2009-07-02

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