Microbial diversity and the environmental factors that drive the microbial community in the Ross Sea Region
Entry ID: K023_2004_2008_NZ_1

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Summary
Abstract: The Antarctic environment has recently been shown to support a high level of diversity of bacteria in the soil given the simplicity and extreme nature of the habitat. Understanding the relationship between soil biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is critical to predicting and monitoring the effects of ecosystem changes on important soil processes. This study investigated what environment factors (moisture, nutrients, mineralogy, geochemistry) drive the microbial diversity in the dry valley soils of Antarctica. Soils were sampled from several different environments (Miers Valley, Mt Erebus thermal soils, Bratina Island meltwater pools, Beacon Valley, Upper Wright Valley and Battleship Promontory) with different environmental factors and analysed for micro-organism using a number of genetic and geochemical analysis such as in situ ATP analysis for quantification of microbial biomass, phylogenetic studies and PCR analysis. The data sets were rather large and detailed and are outlined by season of study in the associated metadata entries.

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Geographic Coverage
 N: -78.0943 S: -78.0943  E: 163.812  W: 163.812
 N: -77.7667 S: -77.7667  E: 167.45  W: 167.45
 N: -78.0167 S: -78.0167  E: 165.5333  W: 165.5333
 N: -77.5155 S: -77.5155  E: 160.7155  W: 160.7155
 N: -77.5188 S: -77.5188  E: 160.7636  W: 160.7636
 N: -76.9116 S: -76.9116  E: 160.9113  W: 160.9113

Temporal Coverage
Start Date: 2005-01-24
Stop Date: 2005-02-05

Start Date: 2006-01-10
Stop Date: 2006-02-01

Start Date: 2006-11-26
Stop Date: 2006-12-13

Start Date: 2008-01-22
Stop Date: 2008-02-02


Location Keywords
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > BRATINA ISLAND
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > MIERS VALLEY
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > MT EREBUS
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > BEACON VALLEY
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > WRIGHT VALLEY
CONTINENT > ANTARCTICA > BATTLESHIP PROMONTORY
GEOGRAPHIC REGION > POLAR


Science Keywords
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >MICRONUTRIENTS/TRACE ELEMENTS    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >SOIL MOISTURE/WATER CONTENT    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >SOIL PRODUCTIVITY    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >SOIL TEMPERATURE    [Definition]
LAND SURFACE >SOILS >MICROFLORA    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >COMMUNITY DYNAMICS >BIODIVERSITY FUNCTIONS    [Definition]
BIOSPHERE >ECOLOGICAL DYNAMICS >COMMUNITY DYNAMICS >COMMUNITY STRUCTURE    [Definition]


ISO Topic Category
BIOTA
ENVIRONMENT
GEOSCIENTIFIC INFORMATION


Platform
FIELD SURVEYS    [Information]
LABORATORY    [Information]


Instrument
SOIL MOISTURE PROBE    [Information]
SOIL SAMPLER    [Information]
SOIL TEMPERATURE PROBE    [Information]


Project
LTER >Long-Term Ecological Research    [Information]
LGP >Latitudinal Gradient Project    [Information]
IPY >INTERNATIONAL POLAR YEAR    [Information]
EBA >Evolution and Biodiversity in the Antarctic    [Information]


Quality
All of the collected samples are stored at the University of Waikato, Hamilton New Zealand in a PC2 containment facility. Various amounts of the samples are held at the University of Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa and is indicated below. The samples are stored at -80C. The samples were used for DNA analysis and this analysis uses very little material. Therefore, most if not all, of the samples still exist.

In the 2004-2005 field season, soil samples were collected along a transect in the Miers Valley. 12 stations were samples with three samples and the data along with these samples includes elevation, GPS position, volumetric water content, temperature and relative humidity. Mummified seal samples were also collected and the corresponding data includes seal number, location, GPS details, altitude, photo number, dentition number, length and associated notes. Soil samples for the biodiversity study corresponding data includes sample number, GPS information, the date collected, altitude and a site description. A set of full transect samples and samples of hypoliths are held in South Africa.

In the 2005-2006 season, samples of soil, sediment and water were collected from Tramway Ridge, Bratina Island meltwater ponds and in the Miers Valley. A set of soil and hypolith samples are held in South Africa.

In the 2006-2007 season, samples were collected from Tramway Ridge, Mt Erebus, the Miers Valley and Beacon Valley. Samples consisted of soil, hyperrhic measurements, seal samples, cyanbacterial mats and hyperliths. A small number of samples are held in South Africa.

In the 2007-2008 season rocks and sand were collected from the Miers Valley, Upper Wright Valley and Battleship Promontory and several samples were taken to South Africa. A full sample set is held at the University of Waikato.

For more information, please contact the investigator.


Data Set Progress
IN WORK


Data Center
Antarctica New Zealand, New Zealand Antarctic Institute, New Zealand    [Information]
Data Center URL: http://www.antarcticanz.govt.nz/

Data Center Personnel
Name: SHULAMIT GORDON
Phone: +64 3 358 0200
Fax: +64 3 358 0211
Email: s.gordon at antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact Address:
Antarctica New Zealand
Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand


Personnel
CRAIG CARY
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +64 7 838 4593
Fax: +64 7 838 4218
Email: caryc at UDel.Edu
Email: c.cary at waikato.ac.nz
Contact Address:
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Waikato
PO BOX 3105
City: Hamilton
Postal Code: 3105
Country: New Zealand


DON COWAN
Role: INVESTIGATOR
Phone: +27 (21) 959 2083
Fax: +27 (21) 959 3505
Email: dcowan at uwc.ac.za
Contact Address:
Department of Biotechnology
University of the Western Cape
Bellville
City: Cape Town
Postal Code: 7535
Country: SOUTH AFRICA


CEISHA POIROT
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +64 3 358 0200
Fax: +64 3 358 0211
Email: c.poirot at antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact Address:
Antarctica New Zealand
Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand


SHULAMIT GORDON
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: +64 3 358 0200
Fax: +64 3 358 0211
Email: s.gordon at antarcticanz.govt.nz
Contact Address:
Antarctica New Zealand
Private Bag 4745
City: Christchurch
Country: New Zealand


Publications/References
Cowan, D.A. Ah Tow, L. Smith, J.J. Cary, C. Moodley, K. 2005 Microbial molecular ecology of continental Antarctic biotopes. Antarctica: Global Laboratory for Scientific and International Collaboration. Tan, A., Yasin, Z., Mansor, M.(eds), Kuala Lumpur Academy of Sciences Malaysia

Adams, B.J. Bardgett, R.D. Ayres, E. Wall, D.H. Aislabie, J. Bamforth, S. Bargagli, R. Cary, C. Cavacini, P. Connell, L. Convey, P. Fell, J.W. Frati, F. Hogg, I. Newsham, K.K. O’Donnell, A. Russell, N. Seppelt, R.D. Stevens, M.I. 2006 Diversity and distribution of Victoria Land biota. Soil biology and biochemistry 38(10): 3003-3018 doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.04.030

Barrett, J.E. Virginia, R.A. Wall, D.H. Cary, S.C. Adams, B.J. Hacker, A.L. Aislabie, J.M. 2006 Co-variation in soil biodiversity and biogeochemistry in northern and southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Antarctic science 18(4): 535-548 doi: 10.1017/S0954102006000587

Hogg, I.D. Cary, S.C. Convey, P. Newsham, K.K. O’Donnell, A.G. Adams, B.J. Aislabie, J. Frati, F. Stevens, M.I. Wall, D.H. 2006 Biotic interactions in Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems: Are they a factor? Soil biology and biochemistry 38(10): 3035-3040 doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.04.026

Smith, J.J. Ah Tow, L. Baker, G. Cary, C. Cowan, D.A. 2006 Bacterial diversity in three different Antarctic cold desert mineral soils. Microbial ecology 51(4): 413-421

Cowan, D.A. Casanueva, A. Stafford, W. 2007 Ecology and biodiversity of cold-adapted organisms. In: Physiology and biochemistry of extremophiles. Gerday, C., Glansdorff, N.(eds), Washington, DC. ASM Press

Niederberger, T.D. McDonald, I.R. Hacker, A.L. Soo, R.M. Barrett, J.E. Wall, D.H. Cary, C. 2008 Microbial community composition in soils of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica Environmental microbiology 10(7): 1713-1624 doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01593.x

Wood, S.A. Rueckert, A. Cowan, D.A. Cary, S.C. 2008 Sources of edaphic cyanobacterial diversity in the Dry Valleys of Eastern Antarctica. The ISME journal 2: 308-320 doi:10.1038/ismej.2007.104

"Babalola, O.O., Kirby, B.M., Le Roes-Hill, M., Cook, A.E., Cary, S.C., Burton, S.G. And Cowan, D.A. 2009. Phylogenetic analysis of actinobacterial populations associated with Antarctic Dry Valley mineral soils. Environmental Microbiology 11(3): 566-576."

Soo, R.M., Wood, S.A., Grzymski, J.J., McDonald, I.R. And Cary, S.C. 2009. Microbial biodiversity of thermophilic communities in hot mineral soils of Tramway Ridge, Mount Erebus, Antarctica. Environmental Microbiology 11 (3): 715-729.

Wood, S.A., Rueckert, A., Cowan, D.A. And Cary, S.C. 2008. Sources of edaphic cyanobacterial diversity in the Dry Valleys of Eastern Antarctica. International Society for Microbial Ecology (ISME) 2: 308-320.

Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 2009-04-30
Last DIF Revision Date: 2009-07-02

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