Long-term Soil Fertility Experiment, Orja, SwedenEntry ID: SLU.Orja
Abstract: This experiment began in 1957 at a site that was cultivated for
several centuries before the start of the experiment. It has had no
manure (and no cattle) since 1912. The geology at the site is glacial
till about 30 m thick.
The experiment consists of 2 crop rotations: I. Milk
production: Barley,grass/clover,winter wheat,sugar beet; straw/beet
tops removed, beet receives FYM. II. No cattle: ... Barley,oil
seeds,winter wheat,sugar beet; straw/beet tops ploughed in, no FYM.
Treatments: 4 N levels (nil - 600 kg N/ha/rotation); 4 PK levels (nil
- replacement+20 kg P+320 kg K/ha/rotation).
The average climatic conditions at the experimental site are: Mean
annual temperature: 7.9 deg C ; Mean annual rainfall: 730 mm.
The soil is described as Typic Eutrochrept (Soil Survey Staff,
1990). Eutric Cambisol (FAO, 1988). The soil properties are:
Depth of root limiting layer: 100cm
Approximate water holding capacity: 335 mm per 1000 mm
Approximate cation exchange capacity: 186 mmol/kg
Approximate carbon content: 1.4%
Approximate carbon:nitrogen ratio: 10
Approximate soil bulk density: 1.76 g/cm3
Percent clay (i.e. particles less than 2 um): 23%
Percent silt (i.e. particles between 2 um and 60 um): 25%
Percent sand (i.e. particles between 60 um and 2000 um): 52%
Approximate soil pH: 7
Approximate minimum soil pH: 7
Approximate maximum soil pH: 7
Method of determining soil pH: In water. Soil:water = 1:2.5
Measurements, methodology, and frequency:
a) Vegetation measurements made and frequency
Yield: Every year
Total above-ground dry matter: Every year
Nitrogen content of offtake: Every year
Every year: P, K.
b) Soil sampling
Time zero soil measurements taken in 1957.
Details of soil sampling method: 0-20 cm: 8 random cores/plot =
64 samples every year. 40-60 cm: 8 random cores/2 plots = 32 samples
every fourth year. From 1995 soil sampling only once a rotation (40-60
cm: every 8th year). At present soil sampling is carried out with
mechanical equipment on a tracked vehicle. Soil is separated into
Details of measuring depths and soil layers: 0-20 cm every year.
40-60 cm every fourth year.
c) Soil measurements made and frequency
Total carbon: 1962, 68, 72, 76 & 88.
Method of measuring total carbon: 1957-83 - wet combustion (Jansson
& Valdmaa, 1961). 1984-> - org. combustion (Strohlein Instrument).
Total nitrogen: 1962, 68, 72, 76, 88.
Method of measuring total nitrogen: Kjeldahl
Soil bulk density or weight: Frequency unspecified
Method of measuring soil bulk density or weight: See Kirchmmann &
Atmospheric inputs: Precipitation is measured continuously during
the growing season with a pluviometer on the field, and the rainwater
is analysed for N (Nilsson, LG (1986), p.49).
This information was compiled for the GCTE-SOMNET Database, Pete
Smith, Pete Falloon, David Powlson, and Jo Smith. Soil Science
Department, IACR-Rothamsted, UK.
(Click for Interactive Map)
Start Date: 1957-01-01
AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS > FERTILIZERS
AGRICULTURE > AGRICULTURAL PLANT SCIENCE > CROP/PLANT YIELDS
AGRICULTURE > SOILS > CARBON > TOTAL CARBON
AGRICULTURE > SOILS > NITROGEN > TOTAL NITROGEN
AGRICULTURE > SOILS > SOIL BULK DENSITY
BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > BIOMASS
BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > CARBON
BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > NITROGEN
BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > NUTRIENTS > POTASSIUM
BIOSPHERE > VEGETATION > PHOSPHORUS
LAND SURFACE > SOILS > SOIL BULK DENSITY
ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY > NITROGEN COMPOUNDS > MOLECULAR NITROGEN > DEPOSITION
ISO Topic Category
Quality a) Details of the plots
Width of smallest plot is 6.25 m
Length of smallest plot is 20 m
Details of direction of cultivation: Ploughing: right angles;
Width of Discard Strip around plot: 1 m
b) Details of replication, randomization and controls
There are at least 2 replicates in the experiment.
The experiment has a restricted randomized plot design.
There are control plots described as follows:
Nil plots could be considered controls.
See Bjarnason & Seeger (1988).
Access Constraints none
Data Set Progress
Role: TECHNICAL CONTACT
Phone: 46 18 671000
Fax: 46 18 672795
Email: Lennart.Mattsson at mv.slu.se
Dept. of Soil Science Box 7014
Postal Code: S-750 07
Role: DIF AUTHOR
Phone: (301) 614-6898
Email: Tyler.B.Stevens at nasa.gov
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Global Change Master Directory
Province or State: MD
Postal Code: 20771
Bjarnason, S. 1987. Nitrogen dynamics in the long-term soil fertility
experiments in Malmohus County. J.R. Swedish
Academy, Agriculture and Forestry. Supplement 19, 65-70. In Swedish with
Bjarnason, S. 1989. The long-term soil fertility experiments in Southern
Sweden. III. Soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics.
Acta Agric. Scand. 39, 361-371.
Bjarnason, S. and Seeger, P. 1988. The long-term soil fertility
experiments in Southern Sweden. II. Statistical analysis of
crop data. Acta Agric. Scand. 38, 145-152.
Gunnarsson, O. 1987. Long-term dynamics of phosphorus in soils
illustrated by means of soil analyses from long-term
fertility experiments. J.R. Swedish Academy, Agriculture and Forestry.
Supplement 19, 71-92. In Swedish with English
Ivarsson, K. 1990. The long-term soil fertility experiments in Southern
Sweden. IV, Changes in organic and organic soil
phosphorus fractions after a pot trial. Acta Agric. Scand. 40, 205-215.
Ivarsson, K. and Bjarnason, S. 1988. The long-term soil fertility
experiments in Southern Sweden. I. Background, site
description and experimental design. Acta Agric. Scand. 38, 137-143.
Jansson, S.L. 1975. Long-term soil fertility studies. Experiments in
Malmohus County 1957-74. J.R. Swedish Academy,
Agriculture and Forestry, Supplement 10, 4-60. In Swedish with English
Jansson, S.L. 1978. Long-term soil fertility experiment as a basis of
soil fertility maintenance. J.R. Swedish Academy,
Agriculture and Forestry 117, 77-93. In Swedish with English summary.
Jansson, S.L. 1983. Twenty-five years of soil fertility studies in
Sweden. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,
Department of Soil Sciences, Division of Soil Fertility, Report 152. In
Swedish with English summary.
Jansson, S.L. 1986. Soil biology - plant production - fertility studies.
The crop residues as a component of soil fertility.
J.R. Swedish Academy, Agriculture and Forestry. Supplement 18, 9-31. In
Swedish with English summary.
Jansson, S.L. 1987. Yield development under different natural
conditions, cropping systems and nutrient levels. J.R.
Swedish Academy, Agriculture and Forestry. Supplement 19, 9-20. In
Swedish with English summary.
Kirchmann, H. 1991. Properties and classification of soils of the
Swedish long-term fertility experiments. I. Sites at Fors
and Kungsangen. Acta Agric. Scand. 41, 227-242.
Kirchmann, H. and Eriksson, J. 1993. Properties and classification of
soils of the Swedish long-term fertility experiments.
II. Sites at Orja and Orup. Soil and Plant Sciences 43, 193-205.
Mattsson, L. 1987. Long-term effects of N fertilizer on crops and soils.
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
Department of Soil Sciences. Division of Soil Fertility, Report No. 170.
Nilsson, L.G. 1986. Data of yield and soil analyses in the long-term
soil fertility experiments. J.R. Swedish Academy,
Agriculture and Forestry.
Nilsson, L.G. 1992. Influence of cropping systems, nutrient level and
soil species on weed development, Report 33.
Swedish Crop Protection Conference, Uppsala.
Persson, J. 1987. Impact of crop yield level and plant residues on soil
organic matter. J.R. Swedish Academy,
Agriculture and Forestry, Supplement 19, 21-28. In Swedish with English
Creation and Review Dates
DIF Creation Date: 1999-12-13
Last DIF Revision Date: 2008-01-31