MMS High Altitude Survey for Mammals, Southern CaliforniaEntry ID: seamap50
Abstract: Marine Mammal and Seabird Surveys of The Southern California Bight Studies: -- So. Calif. Bight High Aerial [Cetaceans] Study Code: SH Contract Number: AA550-CT7-36
Principal Investigator(s)/Affiliation: K. S. Norris and B. J. Le Boeuf, University of California, Santa Cruz, and G. L. Hunt, University of California, Irvine.
Purpose: OBJECTIVES: Objectives of the study were to characterize the marine mammal and seabird fauna of the Southern California Bight, estimate abundance of species, describe the distribution, determine the timing and routes of migrations and movements, and document seasonal changes in numbers or patterns of habitat-use. In addition, studies were conducted to determine the size and status of breeding ... colonies of seabirds and pinnipeds, their productivity, and trends in growth.
TIME PERIOD: May 1975 through March 1978
STUDY AREA: The Southern California Bight, from Point Conception to the U.S.-Mexico boundary and offshore to the 2,000 m isobath.
METHODOLOGY: Aerial and ship surveys were conducted along pre-established transects designed to systematically sample marine mammal and seabird abundance in all waters of the study area. Aerial surveys were conducted at two altitudes (200 ft and about 750-1,000 ft ASL) alternating at 2-3 week intervals. Seabirds and pinnipeds were recorded only on the low-altitude surveys which predominantly sampled along eight lines of latitude, separated by 25 nm, and connecting lines of longitude. High-altitude surveys sampled cetacean abundance along 15 Loran lines oriented northeast-southwest and separated by 12-15 nm. On low-altitude surveys, seabirds were counted only within a 50 m corridor on the shaded side of the aircraft. Marine mammals were counted in an unbounded corridor on one side of the aircraft on low-altitude surveys and both sides of the aircraft on high-altitude surveys. A clinometer or marks on the wing-strut were used to estimate the declination, and the measurement or estimate later used to calculate probability density functions of frequency with right-angle distance. Ships were used for surveys of inshore waters along standard (i.e., predetermined and replicate) transects and for search, catch, and tagging/tracking of small cetaceans. The standard ship transect cruises sampled abundance of seabirds and marine mammals over banks, basins, and ridges in waters inshore of the Patton Escarpment (the shelf break). Seabirds and marine mammals were counted on both sides of the cruise track and distance estimated or measured with a range-finder. Catch cruises attempted to find and remain with schools of common dolphin and other small cetaceans; therefore, data on sightings from these cruises cannot be used as samples of animal abundance. The Southern California Bight Study also included ground and aerial censuses of pinniped and seabird colonies, and special studies of productivity, mortality rates, and foraging range.
DATABASES PRODUCED: Databases produced include 1) sightings of seabirds and marine mammals on 24 *low-altitude aerial surveys, 2) sightings of cetaceans on 35 high-altitude aerial surveys, 3) sightings of seabirds and marine mammals on 29 ship transect surveys, and 4) sightings of cetaceans on 34 catch cruises. Included in this database are the following: High Altitude Mammal Observations: 75,489 km of effort, 695 sightings of 68,557 individual animals Low Altitude Mammal Observations: 37,843 km of effort, 1,320 sightings of 15,070 individual animals Low Altitude Bird Observations: 35,445 km of effort, 7,950 sightings of 63,359 individual animals Ship Observations: 17,903 km of effort, 23,519 sightings of 181,287 individual animals
CURRENTNESS REFERENCE: ground condition
SPATIAL REFERENCE INFORMATION - GEODETIC MODEL
Horizontal Datum Name: D_WGS_1984
Ellipsoid Name: WGS_1984
Semi-major Axis: 6378137.000000
Denominator of Flattening Ratio: 298.257224
Data Set Citation
Dataset Originator/Creator: Minerals Management Service
Dataset Title: MMS High Altitude Survey for Mammals, Southern California
Dataset Series Name: OBIS-SEAMAP
Dataset Release Date: 2004-02-12 23:13:11.702922-05
Dataset Release Place: http://seamap.env.duke.edu/
Dataset Publisher: OBIS-SEAMAP
Data Presentation Form: vector digital dataOnline Resource: http://www.mms.gov/
This data set description is a member of a collection. The collection is described in
Start Date: 1975-05-18Stop Date: 1978-03-25
OCEANS > BATHYMETRY/SEAFLOOR TOPOGRAPHY > WATER DEPTH
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > ALKALINITY > TOTAL ALKALINITY
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > CARBON
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > CARBON DIOXIDE > TOTAL CARBON DIOXIDE
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > DISSOLVED GASES > CFCS
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > HYDROCARBONS
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > INORGANIC CARBON
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NITRATE
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NITRITE
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > NUTRIENTS
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > OXYGEN
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > PH
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > PHOSPHATE
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > RADIOCARBON
OCEANS > OCEAN CHEMISTRY > SILICATE
OCEANS > OCEAN PRESSURE > WATER PRESSURE
OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > POTENTIAL TEMPERATURE
OCEANS > OCEAN TEMPERATURE > WATER TEMPERATURE
OCEANS > SALINITY/DENSITY > CONDUCTIVITY
OCEANS > SALINITY/DENSITY > DENSITY
OCEANS > SALINITY/DENSITY > SALINITY
Quality An important part of the NDP process at the Carbon Dioxide Information
Analysis Center (CDIAC) involves the quality assurance (QA) review of
data before distribution. To guarantee data of the highest possible
quality, CDIAC conducts extensive QA reviews that involve examining
... the data for completeness, reasonableness, and accuracy. Although
they have common objectives, these reviews are tailored to each data
set and often require extensive programming efforts. In short, the QA
process is a critical component in the value-added concept of
supplying accurate, usable data for researchers. For complete details
on the quality analysis done on the NDP-062 data set, see the NDP-062
documentation in: http://cdiac.ESD.ORNL.GOV/ftp/ndp062/
Access Constraints None
Use Constraints None
Data Set Progress
Email: key at princeton.edu
Department of Geosciences, Sayre Hall Princeton University
Province or State: NJ
Postal Code: 08544
Rosensteil School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway University of Miami
Province or State: FL
Postal Code: 33149-1098
Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego
City: La Jolla
Province or State: CA
Postal Code: 92093-0210
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Creation and Review Dates
Last DIF Revision Date: 2009-01-21